Electrical network
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
An
electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of
analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors,
diodes, switches and transistors. It can be as small as an integrated
circuit on a silicon chip, or as large as an electricity distribution
network.
A circuit
is a network that has a closed loop i.e. a return path. A network is a
connection of 2 or more simple circuit elements, and may not be a
circuit.
The goal
when designing electrical networks for signal processing is to apply a
predefined operation on potential differences (measured in volts) or
currents (measured in amperes). Typical functions for these electrical
networks are amplification, oscillation and analog linear algorithmic
operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
differentiation and integration.
In
the case of power distribution networks, engineers design the circuit
to transport the energy as efficiently as possible while at the same
time taking into account economic factors, network safety and
redundancy. These networks use components such as power lines, cables,
circuit breakers, switches and transformers.
To
design any electrical circuits, electrical engineers need to be able to
predict the voltages and currents in the circuit. Linear circuits can
be analysed to a certain extent by hand because complex number theory
gives engineers the ability to treat all linear elements using a single
mathematical representation.
A number of electrical laws apply to all electrical networks. These include
Kirchhoff's current law: the sum of all currents entering a node is equal to the sum of all currents leaving the node.
Kirchhoff's voltage law: the directed sum of the electrical potential differences around a circuit must be zero.
Ohm's law: the voltage across a resistor is the product of its resistance and the current flowing through it.
the Ydelta transform
Norton's
theorem: any twoterminal collection of voltage sources and resistors
is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source in parallel with
a single resistor.
Thevenin's
theorem: any twoterminal combination of voltage sources and resistors
is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source in series with a
single resistor.
Millman's
method: the voltage on the ends of branches in parallel is equal to the
sum of the currents flowing in every branch divided by the total
equivalent conductance.
